A successful approach in regenerative medicine over the past few years has been the use of stem cell therapy to repair diseased or damaged tissue. Stem cells are the cells that have the ability to multiply and develop into any kind of cell, ranging from brain cells to muscle cells. It was found that many stem cell therapies gain their regenerative abilities through the secretion of substances called exosomes. Since this discovery, researchers have successfully isolated exosomes for cell-free regenerative medicine.
Dr. Adonis strives to give the best medical care by identifying and treating the disease at the ground level. If you are suffering from chronic diseases and looking to tackle your disease at a cellular level, ensure you make an appointment with our clinic today.
What are exosomes?
Most cells, including stem cells, release tiny bubbles (extravascular vesicles) called exosomes, with a size of 30-100 nm. Exosomes shuttle genetic material and protein between cells and act as messengers for the cells to communicate with each other. The information carried by exosomes depends on the cell of origin and its ‘health or disease’ state, which influences the target cells that receive the information.
Exosomes released by cells can be found in urine, breastmilk, blood, and saliva. Exosomes from body fluids can be isolated by a number of purification methods. Since these exosomes carry information regarding their cell of origin, they are used for the diagnosis of cancer and other pathological conditions.
The use of synthetic carriers for drug delivery can result in a defensive response by the body’s immune system, leading to failure of treatment. Two of the most important properties of the exosomes are that they are naturally formed, and they have the ability to cross many barriers present in the body. This property makes them an ideal candidate for drug delivery.
Exosome therapy can help with:
Neurodegenerative disorders are a major cause of disability and death. Highly prevalent central nervous system disorders that are associated with neurodegeneration include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington disease, Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, and stroke. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the entry of most drugs into the brain, which makes the development of new treatment for brain diseases a difficult task. The ability of the exosomes to cross the BBB and reach the damaged area of the brain is a huge advantage. Exosomes are been researched and clinically utilized in many centers around the world to help in these neuro-degenerative diseases.
The skin is an organ that is frequently affected in many conditions, such as skin ulcerations in diabetes or extensive burns. Exosomes exert beneficial effects on the formation of tissues and new blood vessels, the two most critical aspects of the wound-healing process. They have successfully been used in burn victims.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Stem cell-derived exosomes have a beneficial therapeutic effect on cardiac cell regeneration and a high therapeutic capacity to be used in the treatment of CVD.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent worldwide joint disease affecting 18% of women and 10% of men over the age of 60. It brings about a remarkable reduction in a person’s quality of life like reduced functioning and disability. It mostly occurs in the joints of the hips, knees, and hands due to the breakdown of cartilage and the resulting change in underlying bones.
The prevalent treatment for OA includes oral medicines and surgery. However, medicines are not efficient in the restoration of cartilage homeostasis, and surgeries may have side effects such as infection and a requirement of prosthesis and are also costly. Exosomes have beneficial therapeutic effects even in OA.
We are well aware that cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. There were approximately 18 million new cancer cases reported and 9.6 million cancer-related deaths worldwide in 2018. The primary methods of cancer treatment at present include chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. Resistance to anticancer agents remains a major causative factor in treatment failure. Exosomes can be used as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer and as drug carriers in the treatment of malignancies.
A pivotal moment in healthcare has arrived with regenerative therapies like exosomes demonstrating significant potential in cancer treatment. Still in research stages but preliminary results are very promising for using exosomes for drug delivery to cancer cells.